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Covid-19: Razvoj vakcine, imunitet i primena medikamenata


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10 hours ago, Spooky said:

Ali zar kod gripa nije problem da pogode koje sorte će biti dominantne. Džaba sve simulacije, kada je to i dalje bacanje kocke. I efikasnost varira iz godine u godinu. Kada pogode sorte,  efikasnost bude 80-90, a kada omaše padne i na 20%.


Jedino ako mRNA ne omogući da se umesto uobičajenih 4-5 sorti ubaci npr 20.

E sad, covid vakcine kodiraju jedan jedini protein, pa bi to značilo 20 puta više rnk materijala... Ne znam da li moze.


nekoliko problema je tu, prvo se vidi šta cirkuliše na drugoj strani polulopte pa dok dodje zima oni naprave koktel po tome, a plus je to virus koji užasno brzo mutira i onda se ne zna za koji protein da se uhvati i na kraju koliki je lični imunogeni odgovor.. ja se recimo apsolutno svaki put razbolim, samo što sa vakcinom to bude pet dana samo glavobolje, a bez nje patosiranje sa temperaturom od 10 dana


ako mRNK može da podigne kvalitet imunskog odgovora, da se brže adaptira prema mutacijama.. klasičnoj vakcini treba oko 3-4 nedelje da napravi prva antitela, zato se preporučuje vakcinacija još tokom oktobra, mRNK daje već za 7-10 dana

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mislim da pogoduje i to sto mrnk mogu brze i lakse da se prilagodjavaju (potencijalno kada i  ako promase dominatni soj/sojeve za epidemiju te godine) i brze se proizvode, ali to je moje nestrucno tripovanje.

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Ovo je iz druge polovine jula, ne znam da li je neko kačio ranije ovde. Ja sam skoro pominjao Sotrovimab, ovde su pre par nedelja uvezli 7700 doza, jedna košta oko US $2100, (besplatna je u američkim bolnicama za ugrožene pacijente):

UAE announces two-week treatment results for Covid-19 medicine Sotrovimab

Led to 100 per cent prevention of death and 99 per cent prevention of admissions to ICU


The Ministry of Health and Prevention, in collaboration with the Department of Health - Abu Dhabi and Dubai Health Authority, has announced the treatment results for anti-viral medicine Sotrovimab in treating mild to moderate Covid-19 cases among high-risk patients including adults, pregnant women and children aged 12 and above who are at risk of progressing to severe symptoms and meet other relevant criteria.


The Ministry of Health and Prevention has approved the use of Sotrovimab, which is produced by global biopharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), after conducting local evaluation. It has also been approved for emergency use by the US Food and Drug Administration.


Between 30 June and 13 July, Sotrovimab was administered to 6,175 patients with Covid-19 in Abu Dhabi. About 52 per cent of the patients were aged 50 or above, and almost all recipients had multiple comorbidities including obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.


97 per cent of recipients fully recovered within 14 days. The medication also resulted in 100 per cent prevention of death among recipients and 99 per cent prevention of admission to ICU.


Sotrovimab is a monoclonal antibody treatment delivered through intravenous therapy in accordance with protocols developed by the National Scientific Committee.


The UAE was one of the first countries in the world to receive a shipment of Sotrovimab in mid-June, following an agreement between the Department of Health - Abu Dhabi, Rafed, a leading group purchasing organisation, GSK and Etihad Cargo.



Iz australijskog članka koji je upućivao na ovu objavu iz Emirata:


President Trump was treated with, among other drugs, a duo of anti-COVID monoclonal antibodies labelled Regeneron, similarly authorised in America last November. The US National Institute of Health recommends either drug for vulnerable patients. Don’t mention them in the same breath as ivermectin or hydroxychloroquine.



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4 hours ago, Gojko & Stojko said:

97 per cent of recipients fully recovered within 14 days. The medication also resulted in 100 per cent prevention of death among recipients and 99 per cent prevention of admission to ICU.


Ima i ovo:



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4 hours ago, Gojko & Stojko said:

ovde su pre par nedelja uvezli 7700 doza, jedna košta oko US $2100, (besplatna je u američkim bolnicama za ugrožene pacijente)


Da, svi kupuju doze na hiljade:



A ni proizvodnja nije neka:




As far as supply is concerned, the companies currently have about 450,000 sotrovimab doses on hand, Vir’s Scangos said. The companies are also revving up their manufacturing network to crank out roughly 2 million doses for the first year of emergency supply in the U.S. The antibody itself is made by WuXi and Samsung Biologics in China and South Korea, respectively, before it’s finished and distributed from GSK’s facility in Parma, Italy, Scangos said.

Samsung is currently coming online with high-volume manufacturing, and the companies “think in the following year, we can make many more than two million doses available,” he added.




Inače, po onome što se piše taj lek bi trebalo da bude prilično otporan i na buduće varijante.



To develop its drug, Vir “deliberately isolated an antibody that binds to a part of the virus that is very difficult for the virus to mutate,” he said. That piece of the virus is “conserved, not only in all the variants, but in SARS-1 … and in a whole family of coronaviruses.”


Edited by vememah
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Ovde se spominju i GSK-ov sotrovimab i Regeneronov REGEN-COV:




Orders for sotrovimab are up 300% from last month, a company spokesperson said.


Regeneronu, firmi koja pravi REGEN-COV, tretman monoklonalnim antitelima koji je dobio Tramp, baš lepo ide:



Meanwhile, Regeneron is seeing a big windfall from its successful pandemic treatment. The company reported $2.59 billion in antibody sales in the second quarter, which was more than the $2.53 billion figure the entire company generated in the first quarter. 

The U.S. pays $2,100 per dose for the treatment, White House advisor Marcella Nunez-Smith told Bloomberg. More than 600,000 doses have been administered in the U.S.
Antibodies are provided free to Americans considered at high risk of developing severe disease. And the pool of those considered such has grown. In May, the FDA expanded its criteria, lowering the threshold for unhealthy weight and including race and ethnicity as factors. University of North Carolina Health infectious disease expert David Wohl told The Wall Street Journal that the pool of eligible people now includes 75% of American adults. 


Edited by vememah
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Evo ga članak (doktorke neurologa) iz današnjeg Heralda iz koga sam preneo deo ranije, uz kraj meni posebno interesantan (znao sam od ranije za ovaj lek za rak kože Keytruda, ali nisam znao da je zasnovan na istoj tehnologiji):

Promising drug a new weapon in curbing COVID’s worst effects



Nevertheless, and crucially, immunologists worry that indiscriminate use of a single antibody such as Sotrovimab might cause resistant variants to emerge and leak into the community. It is no substitute for vaccination. The ethical issues are obvious.


Monoclonal antibodies attack and disable unwanted targets. Think Herceptin for breast cancer, Keytruda for melanoma , Emgality for migraine and Humira for arthritis - all monoclonals, each created or modified for a very specific target. Each is a feat of structural molecular engineering.


It was Britain’s Cambridge scientist, Sir Gregory Winter, who devised and developed the generic technology that underpins monoclonal antibodies. At first, business failed to see their potential. And so, as he recounted in his 2018 Nobel address and at Sydney University in 2019, it was seed-funding from the Australian racing industry which launched monoclonal antibodies to market. The deal was done on a boat on Sydney Harbour. He overheard a whispered comment “Let’s give Greg the money. Let’s see how the boffin trots”. Annual monoclonal revenues now well exceed $100 billion, to untold human benefit.


The Australian perspective has come full circle. Professor Daniel Christ is a former PhD student of Winter’s and is now at the Garvan Institute. He sees a way around this antibody resistance problem. And he looks to the experience in treating HIV infection with three different drugs which curbed that epidemic.


Since early 2020, his team has worked flat out to create monoclonals against COVID-19. They now have three antibodies which are more potent than Sotrovimab in vitro, When used together, they should be very resistant to mutation escape.


If these ventures succeed, Australians will have good reason to be thankful for investment in science.


Ovde ima više detalja o istraživanju Garvan instituta sa kraja članka.



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‘Version 2.0’ of UQ COVID-19 vaccine to start clinical trials in 2022

The head of the team developing the University of Queensland COVID-19 vaccine candidate says the “window has closed” on that vaccine joining the global fight against the pandemic, but confirmed they are working on version 2.0.


Speaking at an online scientific symposium on Friday, UQ Professor Paul Young said they were well down the road to developing a new version of their vaccine candidate, using the same molecular clamp technology.


Professor Young told the meeting that after the initial version 1.0 vaccine was abandoned in December 2020 because of cross-reactivity issues with HIV screening tests, he fully expected the international funding body that initially backed the research, to request he and his team move on to other projects.


However, in a Zoom call shortly after announcing to the world that they had failed in their initial push for an Australian-developed COVID-19 vaccine, the vaccine’s backers told him to go back and try again.


“When I got on that Zoom meeting, there were 126 people there,” he said.


“Having seen our phase one clinical data, they were unanimous with wanting us to stay focused on COVID. So, we have done that, and we are taking a new COVID vaccine forward.”


The UQ team had initially been backed by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, a global partnership launched in 2017 to develop vaccines to stop future epidemics, and then partnered with pharmaceutical company CSL to manufacture the vaccine.


Version 1.0 had performed well in the initial clinical trials, giving well over 90 per cent coverage against the Wuhan strain of the virus, using a molecular “clamp” to hold a protein in a shape that mimicked part of the spike protein seen on the outside of SARS-CoV-2, which caused the body to make antibodies for the virus.


However, the actual clamp molecule used was sourced from the HIV virus because it was very effective and the researchers didn’t have time to look for a better candidate.


Although there was no risk of contracting HIV from the small molecule, it did set off HIV screening tests, something the researchers did not initially think would happen.


Professor Young said they briefly considered pressing forward with the vaccine anyway and using a work-around, but ultimately decided against it because the AstraZeneca and Pfizer vaccines were more advanced in their development.


“What tipped us over in the end was not wanting to cause vaccine hesitancy,” he said.


“And so the right decision was made at that particular time. Whether that was the right decision, given the fullness of time, I don’t know.


“But we’ve turned it around and found a successful alternative, so that we’re very pleased with, and we will progress with that.”


Professor Young said they had developed around 20 new versions of the vaccine, using a different molecule for the “clamp” used to hold the spike protein together.


He said they would be entering clinical trials in 2022, with work being done on animal models in the near future.


“Not surprisingly, we’re looking at a number of different variants including Delta, and the new clamp is working well,” he said.


Professor Young said he had been heartened by the massive outpouring of public support for the UQ vaccine project, both from the project’s commercial partner CSL, and the Queensland and federal governments, not to mention many private philanthropic investors.


He said some gave more than others, but all gave what they could.


“My favourite memory is receiving a letter from a boy in Melbourne who sent us 70 cents, which is all he had in his share jar,” he said.


“It was that level of community support; it buoyed us, it was absolutely extraordinary.”


The online conference was organised by Professor Sharon Lewin, Director of the Doherty Institute, and run by the Australasian Society for HIV, Viral Hepatitis and Sexual Health Medicine, with the theme “Making sense of COVID-19”.


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