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Ruski svemirski program

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Oči Rusije uprte u nebo: Lansirana prva raketa s novog kosmodroma


Ruska Sojuz 2.1a raketa sa tri satelita lansirana je sa novog kosmodroma Vostočni.


To je prva raketa koja je poletela sa kosmodroma, a njena misija je da u orbitu odnese satelite Lomonosov, Aist-2D i SamSat-218. 

Sojuz je trebalo da poleti juče, ali je lansiranje odloženo zbog kvara koji je u međuvremenu uspešno otklonjen. 

Predsednik Rusije Vladimir Putin došao je još juče na kosmodrom u Amurskoj oblasti na krajnjem istoku Rusije i tu se zadržao sve do lansiranja. 

Rusija je izgradnju novog kosmodroma počela 2012. godine. Planirano je da to bude prvi nacionanlni kosmodrom za civilnu upotrebu, koji bi takodje smanjio zavisnost ruske svemirske industrije od kosmodroma Bajkonur u Kazahstanu.




Edited by slow
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Russia works on a new-generation station module

Engineers at Russia's chief manned spacecraft contractor are developing a habitable orbital laboratory, which could serve as the cornerstone of a future deep-space outpost. The new 20-ton module is scheduled to dock at the Russian segment of the International Space Station, ISS, in 2017 or 2018.

Previous chapter: Node module, UM




Above: Isolated view of the NEM module as of 2014. Copyright © 2015 Anatoly Zak / RussianSpaceWeb.com


Above: Internal layout of the pressurized section of the NEM module. Credit: RKK Energia


Above: Three future Russian modules of the International Space Station. (Clickable) Sometimes before 2016, NASA convinced Roskosmos to move the module to the left docking port, along +Z axis of the Russian segment. Credit: RKK Energia

Origin of the NEM project

From the outset of the ISS project in 1993, the Russian segment of the orbital outpost was expected to include a specialized module combining the functions of a space laboratory and a power-supply station. However the original version of the vehicle, known as Science and Power Platform, NEP, stalled on the ground around 2001 due to lack of funds. As a result, Russia had to barter electricity for its segment from NASA. However by the middle of 2000s, RKK Energia jump-started an effort to make the Russian segment independent from any external power supply.

It was decided to transfer most functions of the cancelled NEP platform to a pair of NEM modules, which would be attached to side ports of the yet-to-be-launched Node Module, UM. Both NEM spacecraft were to carry large solar panels with a total area of 155 square meters. The solar panels would be attached to their host spacecraft via a special rotating mechanism provided by ISS Reshetnev, the nation's prime manufacturer of communications satellites. ISS Reshetnev also took responsibility for the antenna system of the NEM module.

The module's power-supply system was expected to produce 18 kilowatt of electricity at the beginning of its life in orbit. Up to 12 kilowatt of this power could be channeled to the rest of the Russian segment at the station.

Last but not least, the NEM module would be equipped with a new-generation antenna enabling 24-hour communications with Russian ground stations via Luch-5 satellites. Thus, it would reinforce independency of the Russian segment on NASA in terms of communications.

New architecture

NEM modules were expected to feature an entirely new design, finally ending the reliance on the architecture of Vladimir Chelomei's TKS spacecraft, which had served as the basis for almost all Soviet and Russian space station modules exceeding 10 tons in mass. From the early days of the Mir space station, its developers complained that TKS-based modules were too bulky for the role. Still, after several incarnations, which considered one and two-launch scenarios, RKK Energia settled on a module large enough to require a Proton rocket, capable of delivering around 20 tons into the low Earth orbit.

Inside the module, RKK Energia considered the installation of standard payload racks which would enable easy replacement of service systems and scientific instruments. Such a modular design echoed the architecture adopted for US modules on the ISS and for the European Columbus laboratory.

The module would also carry its own life-support systems and could feature a sleeping compartment, giving it a property of a fully independent space station. Thanks to its modular architecture, sleeping quarters and scientific payloads would be interchangeable.

Going to Lagrange and other missions

In addition to expanding the ISS, Russian developers viewed the NEM module as the basis for future Russian efforts to send humans beyond the Earth orbit. Thanks to its multi-function design, life support and power-supply capability, one or a whole cluster of such vehicles could provide habitation quarters and laboratories for a station at the so-called Lagrange points, which were considered as a staging ground for the exploration of the Moon, asteroids and Mars.

In case of an international agreement on the construction of a manned outpost in the Lagrange point, the NEM-based laboratory could constitute the Russian contribution into the effort. The NEM-based outpost could be serviced and staffed by the crews of US-European Orion spacecraft and by Russia's next-generation spacecraft, PTK NP.

Simularly, the NEM module, possibly in combination with other hardware, could serve as an outpost in the orbit around the Moon.

Also in 2014, plans were hatched to make the NEM-based laboratory a part of the post-ISS Russian space station, VShOS, in the high-inclination orbit.


In the spring of 2012, Russian space agency, Roskosmos, ordered a fleet of four Proton-M rockets, one of which was reserved for the launch of the NEM-1 module. According to the tender documentation, the rocket would have to be manufactured by November 25, 2014.

In October 2012, the agency also announced a tender for the 15.15-billion ruble contract covering the development of the NEM-1 module itself until the end of November 2015. Not surprisingly, on October 30, Roskosmos awarded this work to RKK Energia, despite a lower bid from Moscow-based GKNPTs Khrunichev, the manufacturer of the Proton rocket and TKS-class modules. However, at the time, Roskosmos, funded the development of only one NEM module. If a single NEM was attached to the Russian segment at the originally planned location, it would cause an asymmetry in the layout of the outpost, thus complicating the attitude control of the station and increasing propellant expenditure.

Also, due to its unique architecture, the NEM module could not use any of standard payload fairings protecting the cargo of Proton rockets during the initial ride through the atmosphere. To resolve the problem, from 2012 to 2014, Zhukovsky Central Aero–Hydrodynamics Institute, TsAGI, was conducting wind-tunnel testing of a custom-designed payload section for the Proton, which could accommodate the NEM module.

As of the beginning of 2014, RKK Energia was yet to resolve another critical issue of manufacturing NEM modules. In a very unusual move for the Russian rocket industry, the company announced that it would consider bids from both domestic and foreign spacecraft developers. However, during the Farnborough air show in July, the head of RKK Energia Vitaly Lopota told the Interfax news agency that according to an already approved agreement, the NEM module would be manufactured at RKTs Progress, the developer of the Soyuz family of rockets. According to Lopota, the module would be completed by the end of 2016. Also in 2013, some unidentified responsibility for the module was expected to be subcontracted to the KBKhA (KB Khimmash) rocket propulsion center in Voronezh.

Launch dates

When the concept of the NEM-1 and NEM-2 modules first appeared in the Russian forward-looking documents, their launches were projected in 2014 and 2015, respectively, however by the start of the actual development in 2012, the launch of NEM-1 was expected no earlier than 2016. In 2013, the launch slipped to 2017.

The Russian version of the ISS schedule revealed at the beginning of 2014 indicated the launch of a single NEM module at the end of 2017. However by April 2014, the launch of NEM was not expected before the end of 2018. In the first half of 2015, the beginning of the NEM mission slipped to 2019.

A station's flight manifest surfaced in April 2015 indicated the launch of the NEM module in the middle of the fourth quarter of 2019.


Edited by slow
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Bre Slowe, sta ces ovde, lepo sam te dole ututkao i ушушкао  :P

Dobar ti ovaj ruski svemirski program, dobar, samo nesto tanak.

S parama.

Pogle neke brojke, onako odoka: ruske vlasti kazu da je za naredni desetogodisnji period, dakle 2016 – 2025, kosmickim programima namenjeno skoro 1.4 biliona rubalja, sto mu trenutno dodje oko 20 milijardi americkih dolara.

Kako stvari stoje, koliko sutra ce biti manje, dolara mislim.

Gadjaju se poprilicno velike ambicije vezano za kosmicke letove sa i bez posade, ali i nastavak ucesca u ISS, sa sve velikim povecanjem broja ruskih telekomunikacionih satelita, ali i odrzavanje poprilicnog broja naucnih programa.
U Roskosmosu se nadaju da ima sanse da se posle 2022, u pomenute programe ubrizga dodatnih 1.7 milijardi US$, ali – videcemo.
Jer: pomenute pare su samo deo pocetno i u neka bolja vremena planiranih skoro 50 milijardi US$ za iste namene i za isti period.
Teska vremena, moraju da se kresu budzeti, ali se sa najviseg mesta uverava da se kosmicki programi moraju da nastave cak i u takozvanoj teskoj ekonomskoj situaciji.
Opet, poredjenja kolicine para radi, takozvani crni budzet Pentagona za fiskalnu 2017. godinu odredjen je na nekih 68 milijardi US$: radi se o parama namenjenim nejavnojtm potrosnji koje cine nekih oko 12% celokupnog takozvanog vojnog budzeta za pomenutu godinu, sto ce reci nekih 582 milijarde US$.
Crno uvek dodje po svoje pa tako deo koji ce iz crnog budzeta biti odvojen za R&D nosi 24% istog, dok je taj procenat u najgrdja i najhladnija vremena Hladnog rata isao najvise do 17%.
Kod Rusa se pare namenjene vojsci u 2016. godini procenjuju na 98 milijardi US$ sto je inace cifra em nesigurna, em podlozna razlicitim tumacenjima zavisno – kako to vec ide – od raznoraznih tendencija i jos vise tendencioznosti, da ne kazem zlih namera.
Nesporan je rast troskova za vojsku gledano kao deo koji ti troskovi jedu iz federalnog budzeta, nesporan je neprekinuti rast istih negde od 2008, ali je nesporno i vec registrovano kresanje troskova ovde-onde, sva je prilika najpre u pomorskim stvarima, obaska sto je kosmos vec vise nego prepolovljen.

Pa ti vidi.

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  • 4 weeks later...

:unsure:  :huh:






Russia to launch yearly manned flights to Moon starting 2025
Published time: 28 May, 2016 17:22
Edited time: 28 May, 2016 17:59
Russia plans to launch one or two manned space missions to the Moon each year between 2025 and 2040, a source in the leading research institute of Russia’s Roscosmos state space corporation told TASS.
The yearly manned space flights, part of Russia’s moon exploration program, will include flyovers and landings on the lunar surface. In order to achieve these goals, Russia plans to use a new type of a manned spacecraft called the Federatsiya (Federation).


Russian space rocket corporation Energia will start construction of the spacecraft and software development this summer, the company’s chief designer told journalists.
The Federatsiya will be a new generation vessel to replace the currently used Soyuz spaceships. It is designed for transferring people and delivering cargo to the moon and the International Space Station (ISS). Its crew will be four to six cosmonauts. The spaceship is expected to be able to operate autonomously for up to 30 days. It can be deployed to the ISS for up to one year.
The testing of the spacecraft is expected to start in 2021, with an unmanned flight launched from Russia’s new Vostochny spaceport in the Far Eastern Amur region. The first test will be followed by two more launches in 2023, including one manned flight. The Angara A5B heavy carrier rocket will be used for the launches, TASS reports.
Earlier, it was reported that Federatsiya test flights will include four launches, two of which will be manned and one will involve a flyover of the moon.
Energia Corporation has already unveiled another project designed for a potential lunar trip. The company presented draft plans for a new reusable space vehicle to shuttle cargo and crews between the ISS and the moon called the Ryvok (Charge of Breakthrough) at the Human Space Exploration international conference in Korolev, near Moscow, on May 26.
The Ryvok spacecraft will be permanently based on the ISS – or its descendant – and will serve as the mid-way shuttle for delivering cargo and crews to the moon, the representatives of the company said at the conference, adding that Ryvok will be much more cost efficient compared to the Federatsiya spacecraft.
The Energia Corporation and NASA are also discussing a project to create a joint space station orbiting the moon, which could be put into operation by the end of the next decade, Energia's representative Yuri Makushenko told journalists at the conference.
The new space station will have accommodation and energy modules as well as nodes and spaceships, he added.
The new station is expected to become a transport hub for maintenance, communications and navigation of the lunar missions and for un-manned missions to Mars and the asteroid belt between the Red Planet and Jupiter.


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Klasifikuj odmah pod želje i snovi, nemaju para za to. Nova familija raketa i nov kosmički brod su trenutni maksimum. Možeš ti i sa Sojuzom sa dodatnim stepenom (blok D) da letiš oko Meseca, što su i radili pre nešto manje od pola veka. 

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  • 7 years later...

nesto pade!











al na mesec.




edit: pre nego me poklope


drago mi je da vidim da zemljani petljaju nesto oko svemira. dugo smo slajfovali u mestu.


e, sada sam spreman za bombardovanje time da je to sve u svrhu globalne dominacije i trke naoruzanja i slicnog. o kome se god radilo.

Edited by foto
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