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Niska Orbita


bigvlada

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Nije nelogično mesto za motore ovog ekranoplana?

 

Misliš jer izduvni mlaz ide između ekranoplana i orbitera? Nemam pojma. Ne može da se poredi sa sličnim letelicama jer ima samo jednu svrhu, da podigne orbiter i kasnije ga spusti. Ne bi me čudilo da mu je dolet sa punim rezervoarima samo par stotina kilometara. 

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  • 2 weeks later...

Orbital Base Station koncept, Skajlon doprema module za gradnju stanice koja je u stvari "suvi dok" za gradnju interplanetarnih letelica. Mogu se videti i Bigelow moduli na naduvavanje.

 

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And now something completely different, pored ovoga i Čudovište Kaspijskog mora izgleda malo. :D

 

Kombinacija Antonov AKS aviona nosača i Tupoljev OOS orbitera.

 

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Na mreži se mogu naći razne varijante, sa pesničkim preterivanjima u vidu docrtavanja motora, ali stavljam neke od n

jih da bi ste videli opšti izgled (predloženi projekat je trebao da ima 18 motora, i dalje ogroman broj).

 

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I sam Tupoljev OOS je jako interesantna mašina, a po izgledu podseća na drugi projekat, Tupoljev Tu-2000

 

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Tupoljev 2000, hipersonični bombarder (u stvari, demonstrator za hipersoničnu tehnologiju, ekvivalent američkog X-30 Orijent Ekspresa).

 

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Douglas Rombus, projekat iz 1963.godine.

 

Inženjer Filip Bono je 1964.godine predstavio projekat Rombus (Reusable Orbital Module-Booster & Utility Shuttle) koji je trebao da bude logični nastavak Apola. On je izmislio tip mlaznice koja je istovremeno mogla da posluži i kao toplotni štit prilikom povratka sa orbite. Sistem cevi kroz koje teče vodonik hladi motore tokom poletanja i toplotni štit tokom sletanja. Klasična mlaznica rakete najbolje funkcioniše na određenoj visini, ispod i iznad nje njena efikasnost se smanjuje. Štos sa ovom mlaznicom je u tome što može da bude potpuno otvorena, deličmično ili potpuno zatvorena (tokom sletanja). Na taj način, efikasnost je ista bez obzira na visinu. 

 

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Jedan od načina da se masa letelice drži niskom je bio taj da su se rezervoari sa tečnim vodonikom kačili na telo prvog stepena i odbacivali kada se isprazne. Nakon toga bi se otvarao padobran koji bi meko prizemljio rezervoar. Ništa se ne baca. 

 

Cena: 10 milijardi dolara (1964.) tokom 10 godina, od čega nešto malo preko 4 milijarde otpada na istraživanje i razvoj. Motori (36 po letelici) i rezervoari su stvari koje su se mogle masovno proizvoditi korišćenjem tehnologije tog doba. Procene su bile da bi jedno lansiranje koštalo 22 miliona dolara a vreme pripreme letelice za sledeći let 76 dana. Krajnji cilje bio da do 1975. godine imaju letelicu koja bi lansirala 450 tona tereta uz operativne troškove od 24 (motori i rezervoari mogu da se ponovo upotrebe 5-6 puta) pa sve do samo 10 dolara (u slučaju da navedene komponente mogu da se iskoriste više od 20 puta) po kilogramu tereta. Poređenja radi, procene za Saturn V su bile između 300 i 500 dolara po kilogramu. Koristila bi se sva postojeća infrastruktura sem lansirne rampe koja je morala biti novog tipa.

 

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Liftoff Thrust: 80.1 MN. Total Mass: 6,350.3t. Total Length: 29m.
Payload capability: 362,274kg to a 568km Earth orbit.
Development cost: $22 billion at 1999 economic conditions. Launch cost goal of $60-$330kg [1999 $s].
Stage Number 1: ROMBUS. 36 x plug-nozzle engines (3000psia pressure, 1:7 mixture ratio). Gross Mass: 6,350.3t incl. ~5,000t LOX. Empty Mass (core vehicle only): 306.175t. External fuel tank mass: (18.143t + 89.358t of LH2 fuel) * 8. Liftoff Thrust: 80.1 MN. Isp: 455s [vac.]. Length: 29m. Width: 24.4m. Propellants: LOX/LH2.

 

"Reusable Booster for Logistics and Planetary Exploration" -- Bono,Woodworth & Ursini, IAF XV:th INTERNATIONAL ASTRONAUTICAL CONGRESS PROCEEDINGS 1964/p.547

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Russia mulls joint orbital station with India, China

Other perspective areas for further research could be modular rockets using methane as fuel and also the creation of an aerospace vehicle
IANS January 27, 2015 Last Updated at 15:32 IST


Moscow may propose at the July summit of the BRICS emerging economies in Russia's Ufa city creation of a joint manned orbital station with India and China, a document drafted by the expert council at Russia's military and industrial commission said Tuesday.

The experts recommend "working out the possibilities of an international manned project with BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries as part of a common strategy of creating technological alliances".

"We can start this work now and include the issue in the agenda of the BRICS business council in Ufa," the document reads.

In particular, Russia should make such a proposal to India and China, which have been actively developing their manned space programmes, the experts suggest.

Other perspective areas for further research could be modular rockets using methane as fuel and also the creation of an aerospace vehicle, which could be used in the future to build a sixth-generation fighter or bomber.

http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/russia-mulls-joint-orbital-station-with-india-china-115012700600_1.html

 

Na prvi pogled, ovo izgleda kao dobra ideja. Međutim...

 

Indija na papiru može najviše da profitira iz ovakve saradnje jer su njene trenutne rakete najslabije. Ono najvrednije što može da ponudi su lansirna mesta najbliža ekvatoru. I Rusija i Kina su uložili mnogo u sopstvene lansirne komplekse a Rusija ima i dodatnu mogućnost u vidu korišćenja Kurua. 

 

Kina bi podnela najveći deo troškova ovakvih projekata. Iako je Rusija svakako u tehnološkom smislu ispred nje, ta razlika se smanjuje. Razvijaju se Dugi marš 5 i 6 raketa kao i sopstveni program razvoja orbitalnih stanica (po sovjetskom modelu). Za sada su na nivou ranih Saljuta ali će Tiangong 3 moći da se poredi sa Mirom kome su priključena jedan do dva dodatna modula. 

 

Rusija i dalje kuburi sa finansijama ali ima najrazvijeniju infrastrukturu i kosmičku industriju. Sa laganim odumiranjem ukrajinske kosmičke industrije (više se ne naručuju Zenit rakete a tražnja u ostalom delu sveta nije dovoljna da Zenit preživi) i udaljavanjem od Bajkonura dugoročno se smanjuju troškovi i ponovo ima kompletna kontrola nad istraživanjem, razvojem i lansiranjem kosmičkih letelica. Porodica raketa Angara i ruski segment ISS-a su dobra osnova za sledeću fazu razvoja a to je orbitalni dok. 

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Era of the ‘Mini Shuttle’ picks up speed with Chinese flight of Yuanzheng-1

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As reported on Want China Times, the Chinese National Space Agency launched the uncrewed Yuanzheng-1 (“Expedition”) mini space shuttle to orbit on March 30. It has been stated in the Global Times that the Unmanned Space Vehicle has the capacity of delivering more than 10 satellites to orbit.

Yuanzheng-1 is one of the 40 spacecraft China plans to send into orbit in 20 separate launches in 2015, as declared during the annual meetings of the country's parliament and political advisory body earlier this month. The UK's Daily Mail described it as China's largest rocket which can restart its engine in space about 20 times. It can launch more than 10 satellites during the course of its mission.
Liang Xiaohong, party secretary of the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, said the carrier rocket bearing Yuanzheng-1 can carry aircraft using its own power system after reaching an initial orbit. Using liquid propellant, Yuanzheng-1 can be operated for up to 6.5 hours in space.
Liang said the spacecraft will play an important role in China's future lunar and Mars missions as well as orbital transfer and space debris clearing.
Referred to as the "space shuttle bus" by various media, the first mission of Yuanzheng-1 is likely to be to launch satellites for China's Beidou Navigation System. Earlier reports suggest China plans to launch four Beidou satellites this year.

The rocket's LH2/LOX third stage inserted YZ-1 and Beidou 17 into a 194 x 25,307 km x 55 deg orbit. YZ-1 then fired its UDMH/N2O4 fueled 663 kgf thrust engine twice, first to raise the apogee to 35,785 km and then, hours later, to circularize the orbit at 35,786 km, creating an inclined geosynchronous orbit.

Edited by Skyhighatrist
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Ne znam, meni je taj princip sletanja generalno jako nestabilan. Mnogo bolje mi deluje recept sa busterima koji imaju krila, točkove i mlazni motor. Žali bože svih onih silnih studija iz sedamdesetih o dvostepenim letelicama gde je donja bukvalno rezervoar sa točkovima,krilima i šatl kabinom.  

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ULA’s Vulcan Rocket Embraces Reusability, New Upper Stage
Apr 13, 2015

 

Amy Butler and Frank Morring, Jr. Aerospace Daily & Defense Report

 

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COLORADO SPRINGS — United Launch Alliance intends to incorporate a reusable main engine and re-ignitable upper stage in its newly dubbed Vulcan rocket, which was unveiled here April 13 on the eve of the 15th Space Symposium.

This new rocket is the company’s path to substantially reduce its cost to launch — a critical factor as the company’s monopoly over national security launches is eroding — and compete against SpaceX, which is expected to break into the military launch market with the U.S. Air Force certification of its Falcon 9 by mid-year.

Company CEO Tory Bruno says the Vulcan’s per-unit cost will fall under $100 million (configurations will vary between 4 and 5-meter versions). Cost for the Vulcan Heavy, which will rely on the largest of the rockets, new solid-rocket boosters and be married with a new upper stage, will be under $200 million, says George Sowers, vice president of advanced programs at ULA. The company’s current Atlas V 401 costs about $164 million (under the Air Force’s 36-core bulk buy) and a Delta IV Heavy is a staggering $400 million.

A monopoly since 2006, when Lockheed Martin and Boeing consolidated their Atlas V and Delta IV operations, the company has not had to compete on cost. Delta IVs are not sold commercially and Atlas Vs are only sold rarely for commercial missions.

Bruno, however, says that is going to change. The first missions for Vulcan are likely to be commercial, he says, as the company pursues a path for certification for national security payloads.

ULA submitted its statement of intent to the U.S. Air Force to get Vulcan certified in February; a cooperative research and development agreement (CRDA) is expected to be signed in August, says Mike Peller, Vulcan program manger. It will outline the steps ULA must take to achieve certification to launch sensitive military and intelligence payloads.

Bruno says ULA has included the Air Force in its design reviews thus far in hopes of easing the process toward certification. SpaceX Founder and Chief Technology Officer Elon Musk criticized the Air Force for taking too long to certify the Falcon 9 v1.1; the process was slated to be complete at the end of 2014 but was punted to mid 2015. SpaceX developed Falcon 9 commercially, though, without any Air Force insight into the program as it evolved until 2013, when the company signed a CRDA to get its rocket certified.

The statement of intent for Vulcan certification includes paths for the use of both the primary main engine — the Blue Origin BE-4 — and ULA’s backup, the Aerojet Rocketdyne AR-1, Bruno says. The BE-4 is slated to enter the market in 2017, a full two years earlier than the AR-1, slated for 2019. Bruno says he will conduct a downselect between the two within the next 18 months.

In parallel with this work, Bruno is planning to release a request for proposals for a new, more effective solid-rocket strap-on booster design this year. Competitors would be Aerojet Rocketdyne and Orbital ATK. Up to six strap-ons can be used for added lift on Vulcan.

The path for Vulcan has four major steps. The first is the aforementioned new engine and rocket system; the second is a new upper stage, the third introduces reusability for the main engine, and the last step introduces what ULA is calling “distributed operations” in orbit.

Initially, Vulcan will continue to use the Centaur upper stage, which flies on the Atlas V, for continued support of Boeing’s CST-100 commercial crew vehicle, and potentially Sierra Nevada’s Dream Chaser or other vehicles, Sowers says.

Meanwhile, ULA will complete development of the new Advanced Cryogenic Upper Stage (ACES) that grew out of space depot work conducted earlier in the Obama administration that called for in-space refueling.

Bruno says the new upper stage will provide far more flexibility for orbital insertion of payloads. ACES is designed to maximize the use of the cryogenic propellant carried in extra large upper stage tanks, some of which is wasted in today’s operations. With ACES, ULA plans to use 1-4 internal combustion engines to boil off hydrogen and oxygen to repressurize the tanks and make maximum use of the remaining cryogenic propellant for greater flexibility in re-ignition. Bruno says the concept buys the gift of time by allowing the upper stage to remain functional longer. He also says the design offers the opportunity for virtually limitless reignition in orbit.

Use of this new system also would eliminate the need to rely on hydrazine thrusters. Sowers concedes the concept requires improved insulation over what is used on Centaur.

ULA has partnered with Roush Motors, an American race car engine company, to develop an internal combustion engine able to burn hydrogen and oxygen. Sowers describes it as about the size of lawn mower engine.

The new approach to handling propellant will feed one of three engines Bruno says are in contention for the new upper state. They include the Blue Origin BE-3U (U for upper stage), a modified Aerojet Rocketdyne RL-10 (now used on the Centaur) and an XR-5K18 piston-driven cryogenic rocket engine in development by XCOR Aerospace.

Bruno says were it not for the national urgency of weaning the U.S. off its reliance on the Atlas V’s Russian-made RD-180 engine – urgency underscored last year after Moscow annexed Crimea – the company would have focused first on the upper stage. ULA hopes to fly ACES in 2019, Bruno says.

The next step is to refine the reusability of the main engine, Bruno says. The concept calls for the use of a hypersonic heat shield ULA is designing with NASA to protect the engine as it re-enters the atmosphere and slow its re-entry. Once slowed, the engine will deploy a steerable parafoil, which will guide it to a rendezvous point with a helicopter. The helicopter then will use a hook to pluck the engine from its descent. This is not unlike the retrieval operations for film canisters employed on early spy satellites.

Finally, the last stage calls for use of those large propellant tanks in orbit. Sowers says they can loiter in orbit and service assets also orbiting to extend satellite lives.

Peller says production of parts for Vulcan will begin in 2017; production of parts for the BE-4 already has begun.
Bruno hopes to retire the single-core Delta IV in 2018 and retain the Delta IV Heavy only until the Vulcan Heavy is ready, likely around 2023 or 2024.

Meanwhile, Bruno says operations will continue with Atlas V and Delta IV for national security launches. ULA has 29 Russian RD-180s on order, two of which have been delivered. He says the company’s “launch capabilities” contract — dubbed a “subsidy” by SpaceX boosters because it funds ULA’s workforce and infrastructure — runs out in 2019. Bruno says there has been no talk of prematurely ending that contract, but former Pentagon procurement chief John Young has suggested it should be truncated to level the playing field for forthcoming competitions with SpaceX.

In the future, however, Bruno says the company will shift to a more transparent pricing structure that incorporate the cost of both the hardware and services into one number. He says details of the sales strategy will be forthcoming in June.

 

http://aviationweek.com/space/ula-s-vulcan-rocket-embraces-reusability-new-upper-stage?NL=AW-05&Issue=AW-05_20150414_AW-05_969&YM_RID='email'&YM_MID='mmid'&sfvc4enews=42&cl=article_2

 

Ovde se ne spasava ceo prvi stepen već samo najvredniji deo, motor i elektronika. Hvatanje pomoću helikoptera i mreže je strategija stara više decenija, još od Korona kapsula sa razvijenim filmom. 

 

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Edited by bigvlada
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