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bigvlada

Kolonizacija Meseca

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bigvlada

Ako je verovati dosadašnjim podacima, rupa u Marius brdima, nastala vulkanskom aktivnošću krije pećinu dovoljno veliku da se smesti kompletan zemaljski grad i da ostane još mesta.

 

potentialhum.jpg

 

1-potentialhum.jpg

 

Lava tubes exist on Earth, but their lunar counterparts are much larger. For a lava tube to be detectable by gravity data, it would need to extend several kilometers in length and at least one kilometer in height and width – which means the lava tube near the Marius Hills is spacious enough to house one of the United States' largest cities, if the gravity results are correct.

 

To je nekoliko kvadratnih kilometara tla na dnu koji bi mogli da se koriste za useve (i to na više spratova, eksperimenti sa gajenjem biljaka u tlu koje podseća na mesečevo i marsovsko se obavlja već dugi niz godina) dok bi stanovništvo živelo u višim slojevima. Krov i vazdušna komora/ sletalište se mogu izraditi od lokalnih materijala. 

 

Izgleda da je Artur Klark bio u pravu kada je proročanski smestio bazu Klavijus pod zemlju. Kao i Isak Asimov koji je osmislio nešto slično u jednoj od svojih knjiga o Zadužbini. 

 

https://phys.org/news/2017-10-potential-human-habitat-moon.html

 

Uzgred, ESA već šalje svoje astronaute u šetnju sa geolozima i speleolozima po pećinama i vulkanskim jamama na Zemlji.

 

http://www.marsdaily.com/reports/Mine_craft_for_Mars_999.html

 

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bigvlada
Scientist devises a solar reactor to make water and oxygen from moon rocks

by Staff Writers

Washington DC (SPX) Oct 30, 2017

 

 

An aerospace engineer has built a device to make water and oxygen from the lunar regolith, powered by solar energy.

Working over a ten year period at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (CIEMAT) Denk has designed and built a device to make enough oxygen and water for 6 to 8 astronauts, powered by a thermal solar reactor. In 2017 it completed a six-month test run.

 

The idea is not new; just the implementation.

 

"From the beginning people were thinking this probably has to be done with a solar furnace, because on the Moon there is not very much to heat a system that you can use; photovoltaics with electricity or a nuclear reactor or concentrated solar radiation," said Denk, who has experience in concentrating solar and in particles engineering.

 

"After the Apollo missions, scientists had a lot of ideas of how to make oxygen on the Moon, because every material that you bring from Earth costs money. For every kilogram of payload you need hundreds of kilograms of fuel."

 

Denk's simple solar reactor could chemically split water from lunar soil, and electrolysis could then split the H2O into oxygen and hydrogen. But few other attempts used solar reactors, and ones that did had flawed designs, due to undersizing the solar concentrator to heat the reactor - and none exceeded bench scale.

 

"Mine is the real size you would build on the Moon to make oxygen for a crew of six or eight, so there's no upscaling needed later. I have also extended my use of fluidized beds. It's not only the reactor itself, but it is also the supply lines and the removal pipe for the particles," said Denk of his fluidized bed solar reactor design. In a fluidized bed reactor, particles behave like liquid.

 

"It looks just like boiling liquid. If you look up close you see it move very wildly and the same thing happens with fluidized particles. So you have very good mixing and very good contact between the particles and the gas. The result is a very homogeneous temperature and efficient chemistry," he explained.

 

The regolith would need pre-treatment to smooth the particles out, because unlike rounded particles weathered by atmosphere and water on Earth, lunar regolith particles are strange shapes with sharp edges, as there's no atmosphere on the Moon to wear them down. Pretreating them "round" then sieving for the correct fraction of the grain size would be critical for the safe operation of the fluidized bed reactor.

 

Denk was initially inspired by a NASA Centennial challenge in 2008 for oxygen from Moon rock. "They put all the questions that they have but they have no money to answer them to the public and if you succeed you can win $2 million."

 

The weight limit was so low, 50 kg, that NASA's challenge expired with no takers. Denk's can process 25 kg of particle load in less than an hour and currently weighs 400 kg. He thinks he can reduce the weight.

 

But, ten years later, he has met the two other conditions: that it could produce 2.5 kg of oxygen in four hours, and that electricity use should not surpass 10 kW. The chemical reaction is mostly powered by the solar reactor, and would use less than 5 kW of electricity, mostly for the second step; splitting oxygen from hydrogen with electrolysis.

 

He has demonstrated the first step, making 700 g of water in one hour - which would enable making 2.5 g of oxygen in 4 hours using electrolysis, a proven technology, but that will need additional funding.

 

Water produced in a solar reactor for the MoonWith the successful test of this solar reactor design, Denk has achieved the first step, creating H2O on the Moon using solar thermal energy. For the second step, solar electrolysis would break the H2O into hydrogen and oxygen.

 

His process uses ilmenite (TiO3), an iron oxide found in the "dark" areas of the Moon. It would be dug up by a small robot and carried to the reactor. Denk likes the Rassor digging robot, with opposing rotating drums that prevent it from propelling off-surface by the force of digging in lunar gravity (one-sixth Earth gravity).

 

How this would split H2O and oxygen from lunar soil:

 

The chemical reactions to make oxygen and water would involve one import from Earth, hydrogen; but just initially.

 

"The hydrogen would be just for the first few hours. Then that would be recycled with the electrolyzer," he explained. "Even if you bring hydrogen from Earth and get oxygen from the Moon for making rocket fuel, you save nearly 90% of the weight. Hydrogen is the lightest element. Oxygen is much heavier."

 

He described the two-step process:

 

+ The main component is the iron-titanium oxide - ilmenite (FeTiO3). To remove the oxygen, you add hydrogen so it becomes water. H2O comes out of the first step. FeTiO3 + H2 + solar heat - Fe + TiO2 + H2O

 

+ The second step is in an electrolyzer using the product water from the reactor. The water is split to produce hydrogen and oxygen. H2O + electric power ? H2 + 0.5O2

 

The oxygen is the product and the hydrogen gets returned to the process.

Pretpostavljam da će jed

The Moon's ideal solar resource

The Moon has ideal conditions for making solar fuels, because chemical reactions to split oxygen and hydrogen require very high temperatures, and work best when they are continuous. The Moon's annual normal solar irradiation is nearly 6,000 kWh per square meter per year, and lunar days are 14 earth-days long; 354 hours.

 

"Daylight is 2 weeks without interruption, and then you have the same half-month of dark as night. So if you need three hours to turn it on, it's not a big problem. There is no atmosphere on the Moon, and there is no weather, no clouds, so you really can operate from sunrise to sunset at full power for each half-month," Denk said.

 

Concentrated solar furnaces (see Task II), are able to achieve very high temperatures. But at above 1050 C, the Moon's regolith particles tended to gum up the works by glueing together; a process called sintering.

 

"The chemical reaction starts to be working from 800 C but sintering starts to be a problem at 1,050 C degrees, so my goal was not to surpass the 1000 C," he explained. "I achieved a bit more than 970 C and the maximum was hardly above 1000 C. So I had a temperature in the bed of not more than 30 up and down, for the highest possible average temperature without sintering."

 

With the successful test of this solar reactor design, Denk has achieved the first step, creating H2O on the Moon using solar thermal energy. For the second step, solar electrolysis would break the H2O into hydrogen and oxygen.

 


 

Voda, kiseonik, vodonik i gvožđe iz regolita. Pretpostavljam da će jedan od prvih zadataka nove mesečeve orbitalne stanice biti upravljanje robotima koji će kopati rudu, drobiti je i ubacivati u ovakvu i slične mašine radi stvaranja zaliha za sopstvenu upotrebu i dalja istraživanja. 

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bigvlada

Kineski plan za Mesec je sličan rusko-američkom, mesečeva orbitalna baza, ali na mnogo nižem nivou. Oni žele da tamo šalju uzorke tla na proučavanje umesto na Zemlju. 

http://www.moondaily.com/reports/Robot_Moon_Base_Beijings_New_Lunar_Landing_Program_999.html

 

Sa uspešnim lansiranjem orbitalne stanice, slanjem tajkonauta i zaliha na nju kao i sopstvenom lunohod misijom Kinezi su dostigli većinu uspeha SSSR-a sa početka sedamdesetih.

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bigvlada

 

Izgleda da su našli rupu blizu mesečevog pola koja je mogla nastati delovanjem lave. Ideja je da bi eventualna mreža tunela u koju je ovo ulaz mogla da krije ogromne količine lako dostupnog vodenog leda, tj. ne mora da se kopa regolit i iz njega izvlači voda. 

 

5a57bce6a15ad.jpg

 

https://phys.org/news/2018-01-lava-tube-skylights-north-pole.html

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Chinese volunteers spend 200 days on virtual 'moon base'

January 26, 2018
Four volunteers lived in the sealed lab to simulate a long-term space mission with no input from the outside world
Four volunteers lived in the sealed lab to simulate a long-term space mission with no input from the outside world

Chinese students spent 200 continuous days in a "lunar lab" in Beijing, state media said Friday, as the country prepares for its long-term goal of putting people on the moon.

 

Four students crammed into a 160-square-metre (1,720-square-foot) cabin called "Yuegong-1"—Lunar Palace—on the campus of Beihang University, testing the limits of humans' ability to live in a self-contained space, the official Xinhua news agency said.

The volunteers lived in the sealed lab to simulate a long-term space mission with no input from the outside world.

The experience tested them to the limit, the module's chief designer Liu Hong told Xinhua, especially on three occasions when the lab experienced unexpected blackouts.

The experience "challenged the system as well as the psychological status of the volunteers, but they withstood the test," Liu said.

The facility treats human waste with a bio-fermentation process, and volunteers grew experimental crops and vegetables with the help of food and waste byproducts.

Two men and two women entered for an initial stay of 60 days. They were then relieved by another group of four, who stayed 200 days.

The initial group will now return for an additional 105, Xinhua said.

The "Lunar Palace" has two plant cultivation modules and a living cabin: 42 square metres containing four sleeping cubicles, a common room, a bathroom, a waste-treatment room and a room for raising animals.

A successful 105-day trial was conducted in 2014.

China does not expect to land its first astronauts on the moon for at least another decade, but the project seeks to help the country prepare lunar explorers for longer stays on the surface.

China is pouring billions into its military-run space programme and working to catch up with the United States and Europe, with hopes to have a crewed outpost by 2022.

Russia and the United States have also carried out experiments to simulate conditions for long-term spacetravel and living on Mars.

Beijing sees the programme as symbolising the country's progress and a marker of its rising global stature, but so far China has largely replicated activities that the US and Soviet Union pioneered decades ago.

https://phys.org/news/2018-01-chinese-volunteers-days-virtual-moon.html

 

Očekujem pojačanu dreku na zapadnoj hemisferi kada se bude ispostavilo da je trianesti čovek iz Azije. 

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