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bigvlada

Kolonizacija Meseca

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bigvlada

Topic za satelite, sa ili bez atmosfere, okeana ili vulkana. Izvolite :)Earth Had Two Moons That Crashed to Form One, Study SuggestsBy Charles Q. Choi | SPACE.com – Wed, Aug 3, 2011df39dfc650b8d111f40e6a706700815c.jpgMartin Jutzi and Erik Asphaug, University of California, Santa Cruz via Nature - This diagram provided by Martin Jutzi and Erik Asphaug, University of California, Santa Cruz via Nature shows a simulation of four stages of a collision between the Moon and a companion moon, four percent of the lunar mass, about 4 billion years ago. Earth once had a second moon, until it made the fatal mistake of smacking its big sister, some astronomers now theorize. For awhile when the Earth was young, it had a big moon, the one you see now, and a smaller "companion moon" orbiting above. Then one day that smaller moon collided into the bigger one in what astronomers are calling the "big splat." (AP Photo/Martin Jutzi and Erik Asphaug, University of California, Santa Cruz via Nature A tiny second moon may once have orbited Earth before catastrophically slamming into the other one, a titanic clash that could explain why the two sides of the surviving lunar satellite are so different from each other, a new study suggests. The second moon around Earth would have been about 750 miles (1,200 kilometers) wide and could have formed from the same collision between the planet and a Mars-sized object that scientists suspect helped create the moon we see in the sky today, astronomers said. The gravitational tug of war between the Earth and moon slowed the rate at which it whirls, such that it now always shows just one side to Earth. The far side of the moon remained a mystery for centuries until 1959, when the Soviet Luna 3 spacecraft first snapped photos of it. (The far side is sometimes erroneously called the dark side, even though it has days and nights just like the near side.) [Video: How the Moon Was Made]The moon has two faces The moon's far side is very different than its near side. For instance, widespread plains of volcanic rock called "maria" (Latin for seas) cover much of the near hemisphere, but only a few maria are seen on the far one. In addition, while the surface of the near side is mostly low and flat, the far side is often high and mountainous, with the lunar surface elevated 1.2 miles (1.9 km) higher on average on the far side. Now computer simulations hint a second moon essentially pancaked itself against its larger companion, broadly explaining the differences seen between the near and far sides. Their calculations suggest this second moon would have formed at the same time as our moon. Scientists have suggested that our moon was born from massive amounts of debris left over from a giant impact Earth suffered from a Mars-size body early on in the history of the solar system. Spare rubble might also have coalesced into another companion moon, one just 4 percent its mass and about 750 miles wide, or one-third of our moon's diameter. Earth's second moon To imagine where this other moon once was, picture the Earth and the moon as being two points in a triangle whose sides are equal in length. The other point of such a triangle is known as a Trojan point, or a Lagrangian point, named after the mathematician who discovered them. At such a point, the gravitational attraction of the Earth and moon essentially balances out, meaning objects there can stay relatively stably. The Earth and moon have two Trojan points, one leading ahead of the moon, known as the L-4 point of the system, and one trailing behind, its L-5 point. The researchers computed that this second moon could have stayed at a Trojan point for tens of millions of years. Eventually, however, this Trojan moon's orbit would have destabilized once our moon's orbit expanded far enough away from Earth. The resulting collision would have been relatively slow at 4,500 to 6,700 miles per hour (7,200 to 10,800 kph), leading its matter to splatter itself across our moon as a thick extra layer of solid crust tens of miles thick instead of forming a crater. "It is entirely plausible for a Trojan moon to have formed in the giant impact, and for it to go unstable after 10 million to 100 million years and leave its imprint on the moon," study coauthor Erik Asphaug, a planetary scientist at the University of California, Santa Cruz, told SPACE.com. Imagine "a ball of Gruyere colliding into a ball of cheddar."Moon crash post mortem The remains of this Trojan moon would make up the highlands now seen on our moon's far side. At the same time, the impact would have squished an underground ocean of magma toward the near side, explaining why phosphorus, rare-earth metals and radioactive potassium, uranium and thorium are concentrated in the crust there. A number of explanations have been proposed for the far side's highlands, including one suggesting that gravitational forces were the culprits rather than an impact from Francis Nimmo at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and his colleagues. Nimmo said that for now there is not enough data to say which of the proposals offers the best explanation for this lunar contrast. "As further spacecraft data and, hopefully, lunar samples are obtained, which of these two hypotheses is more nearly correct will become clear," Nimmo said in a statement. Asphaug and his colleague Martin Jutzi at the University of Bern in Switzerland detailed their findings in the August 4 issue of the journal Nature.http://news.yahoo.com/earth-had-two-moons-crashed-form-one-study-170201124.html

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bigvlada

Jedna panorama Titana, malo je hladno, a oko 98% atmosfere je azot. Od kiseonika ni korova. anpanoramacolored.jpg

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Jolly Roger
NASA Moon Lander Prototype Explodes in Test FlightAn experimental, "green" NASA lander crashed during its first free-flight test today (Aug. 9), erupting in a ball of flame when it hit the ground.The unmanned Morpheus lander, which could one day deliver payloads to the moon or other solar system bodies, barely got off the pad around 12:40 p.m. EDT (1640 GMT) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida before toppling over and exploding.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-hvlG2JtMtsMora NASA da zakenja a taman nas je obradovala... :) Edited by Jolly Roger

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Vapad
Mora NASA da zakenja a taman nas je obradovala... :)
Skidam upravo hd i reko haj da okačim kad ti već okačio :DNo...http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kTmlDmlVbFc&feature=related
su imali problema pa na 16 i 20 sve išlo lepo i sada se dešava isto kao na prethodnim, nešto su zeznuli. Edited by Vapad

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Jolly Roger

Takva je NASA: uspešno pogode bez koske sa Novog Zelanda koš u Nemačkoj, ali zato ne mogu da podignu tri balona 1,5m bez detonacije... :D

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Zaz_pi

Dve vesti koje su povezane sa mogucim pravljenjem baze na Mesecu. Iako vise spadaju u astronautiku:Korporacija "Energija" radi na razvoju ruske super-rakete 250px-Angara_missiles.jpg

Ruska raketno-kosmička korporacija "Energija" namerava da učestvuje na konkursu "Roskosmosa" za razvoj rakete-nosača (RN) velike nosivosti koji je obelodanjen početkom avgusta. U tenderu vrednosti 10 miliona rubalja (oko 340 hiljada dolara) stoji da nova ruska RN treba da bude zasnovana na projektu RN "Angara", na kome stručnjaci "Hruničeva" inače rade od 1995.Trenutno se na kosmodrmu Pleseck odvijaju testiranja sistema lake verzije rakete "Angara" čije se prvo lansiranje očekuje 2013. Porodica RN "Angara" je zasnovana na tzv. univerzalnom raketnom modulu (URM) koji će omogućavati široki dijapazon korišćenja ovih raketa od 1,5 ("Angara 1.1") to 35 tona (Angara A7") pri startu sa Plesecka. URM-1 je predvidjen za prvi, a URM-2 za drugi i treći stepen rakete "Angara". Rakete lake klase ("Angara 11.1" i "1.2") imaće po jedan URM, nosači srednje klase ("Angara A3") će imati tri modula URM, dok će u teškoj klasi ("Angara A5") biti korišćena pet modula URM.Pored "Angare", "Roskosmos" u konkursu navodi da se u razvoju novog sistema KRK koriste rešenja projekta "Rus-M" kompanije "Progres" koji je radi efikasnijeg progresa "Angare" stopiran prošle godine. Nova ruska super-raketa treba da ima maksimalnu nosivost do 70 tona. Osnovni zadatak nove ruske super-rakete koja nosi skraćenicu KRK (kosmički raketni kompleks) je da bude u stanju da prema Mesecu lansira kosmički brod sa ljudskom posadom.Pobednik konkursa, koji će se znati 6. septembra, treba da do kraja maja 2013. predstavi preliminarni projekat ruske super-rakete.KRK treba da leti sa novog kosmodroma Vastočnij koji se gradi u Amurskoj oblasti. Predvidjene su dve verzije rakete KRK - sa dva i sa tri stepena.U RKK "Energija" odakle su povremeno dolazile kritike projekta "Angara", smatraju da se nova super-raketa može napraviti relativno brzo i za male pare korišćenjem tehnologija već korišćenih na poslednjem džinu ruske industrije - raketi "Energija" krajem 80-ih.RKK "Energija" takodje predlaže Ukrajini i Kazahstanu da skupa grade raketu-nosač (RN) velike nosivosti koju su nazvali "Sadružestvo" ("Zajedništvo"). Na Bajkonuru (koji se nalazi u Kazahstanu) postoji lansirni kompleks sistema "Energija" koji se sa relativno malo investicija može preurediti za RN "Sadružestvo".Takodje, tu su i blokovi "A" koji se sa trenutno koriste kod ukrajinsko-ruske rakete "Zenit", znači reč je o tehnologiji koja ne zahteva velika dodatna sredstva. Pet takvih blokova može biti ukomponovano u prvi i drugi stepen nove RN. Istina, izmene će pretrpeti centralni blok "Energije" gde će umesto kombinacije tečni vodonik + tečni kiseonik, biti korišćen stepen koji koristi tradicionalnu pogonsku kombinaciju kerozin + tečni kiseonik.Kao što je poznato, pre godinu dana je NASA objavila planove na gradnji super-rakete SLS nosivosti do 165 tona. Cena projekat SLS je 35 milijardi dolara. Polovina te sume će biti potrošena tokom sledećih pet godina. Poredjenja radi, raketa "Saturn V" koja je odvela Amerikance na Mesec, imala je nosivost od 130 tona. Medjutim, treba napomenuti da stručnjaci NASA-e planiraju da u prvoj fazi SLS bude projektovan za maksimalnu nosivost od 70 tona.Prvo probno lansiranje SLS treba da bude obavljeno najranije decembra 2017.
Utvrđene karakteristike novog ruskog kosmičkog broda 450x432-images-stories-Astronautika-Rusi-2012-avgust-3-PPTS_spacecraft_2010-2011_design.jpg
Stručnjaci RKK "Energija", vodeće ruske kosmičke korporacije, utvrdili su karaketristike ruskog perspektivnog pilotiranog transporntog sistema (PPTS).Aprila 2009. RKK "Energija" je pobedila na konkursu "Roskosmosa" za razvoj preliminarnog projekta PPTS. Predsednik i generalni konstruktor korporacije Vitalij Lopota je izjavio da je u toku faza tehničkog projektovanja i da je definisan oblik novog kosmičkog broda.Predviđeno je da PPTS bude razvijen u nekoliko modifikacija i postane univerzalni transportno-kosmički sistem koji će obavljati misije kako na niskim orbitama oko Zemlje, tako i u dubokom kosmosu, uključujući letove prema Mesecu.Na orbitama oko Zemlje, PPTS će zameniti stari "Sajuz" kao prevozno sredstvo do MKS i budućih orbitalnih stanica. Pored toga, "orbitalna" verzija PPTS će se koristiti za remont kosmičkih aparata i uništavanje dotrajalih satelita i fragmenata raketa-nosača ("kosmičkog otpada").Za misije prema Mesecu, PPTS će leteti u sklopu kompleksa u koji ulaze i dva potisna raketna bloka. Prvi veći raketni blok (zvaćemo ga "orbitalni raketni blok" ili ORB) će se koristiti za napuštanje niske orbite i prebacivanje PPTS na putanju leta prema Mesecu, a drugi, manji blok ("mesečev raketni blok" ili MRB) za povratak broda sa Mesečeve orbite.U završnoj etapi lunarnog leta, brod će ući u atmosferu Zemlje drugom kosmičkom brzinom (preko 11km/s), tako da će pojedini delovi na njegovoj površini biti zagrejani preko 3000 stepeni Celzijusa.Ateriranje će biti obavljeno kombinacijom padobrana, retroraketnih motora i stajnog trapa, sa preciznošću koja će i do deset puta nadmašiti tačnost sletanja "Sajuza".U "mesečevoj" verziji, masa PPTS će iznositi oko 20 tona, što znači da je za njegovo lansiranje prema Mesecu potrebna raketa-nosač snage 120-130 tona. Međutim, postojeće tehnologije u Rusiji omogućavaju razvoj nosača kapaciteta 60-70 tona (što je predložena nosivost nove ruske rakete KRK čiji je tender objavljen početkom avgusta). To znači, da će "mesečeva" verzija PPTS biti zasnovana na konceptu dvostrukog lansiranja. To je inače bila jedna od šema analizirana početkom 60-ih za mesečeve projekte "Apolo-Saturn" i "N1-L3".Tokom prvog lansiranja PPTS će biti izbačen u nisku orbitu skupa sa potisnim blokom MRB. Druga raketa će izbaciti u orbitu ORB, sa kojim će se spojiti kompleks PPKK+MRB. Sledi paljenje motora ORB, sistem napušta orbitu oko Zemlje, ORB se odvaja, dok PPTS+MRB nastavljaju let prema Mesecu.U "mesečevoj" verziji, PPTS može takođe da leti do stanica postavljenih u orbitu oko Meseca ili u nekoj od Lagranžeovih tačaka.Ranije je direktor "Roskosmosa" Vladimir Popovkin izjavio da će prvi automatski eksperimentalni letovi PPTS početi 2018. što se vremenski podudara sa planovima NASA-e vezanim za projekat "Orion".

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bigvlada

Sada sam video ovu vest, ali svi oni zajedno nemaju novca za to. PPTS kasni u odnosu na zapadne projekte. Vostočni guta novac.tri stara ruska projekta mesečevih baza10sen2x.jpg24c7cqp.jpg2hnncer.jpg

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Zaz_pi
Sada sam video ovu vest, ali svi oni zajedno nemaju novca za to. PPTS kasni u odnosu na zapadne projekte. Vostočni guta novac.
Istina ali i Roskosmos treba, po novoj raspodeli u budzetu Rusije, da dobije znatno vise novca u narednim godinama:
According to Vladimir Popovkin on February 2, 2012:
  • budget for 2012 will be about 150 billion rubles ($5.17 bln);
  • budget for 2013 should reach about 175 billion rubles ($6 bln);
  • budget for 2014 should reach about 200 billion rubles ($6.9 bln).

E, da li ce se to ostvariti to ce se videti:Back to the Moon: When, Why and How?
March 20, 2012Ilya KramnikRoskosmos head Vladimir Popovkin announced that Russia was expected to reach the moon by 2020 which brought about a sensation.In the past decade, the Russian space program has not impressed the world with any large-scale projects, especially successful ones. Given this recent history, Roskosmos head Vladimir Popovkin’s declaration that Russia plans to reach the moon by 2020 has caused a sensation.Preparing and sending a mission to the moon will cost about $17 billion over the next decade. Given the current annual budget of Roskosmos -- $4 billion per year – the financing of the space agency will have to be increased by almost 50 percent to implement the Moon program. If Russia pursues a “comprehensive Moon exploration” program, which could include the creation of a permanent base on the Moon, the Roskosmos budget will have to be raised more than six-fold.Such a serious budget increase will have to be substantiated, and this appears to be the chief problem for contemporary domestic astronautics. Why should Russia go back to the Moon at all?It’s hard to justify a manned Moon landing 50 years after the successes of American astronauts, especially when the scientific exploration of the moon is being efficiently carried out by unmanned vehicles launched by various countries. Russia already has its own unmanned Moon vehicle projects in the works – in the next few years, Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs are to be launched. These missions are expected to return a case of wet Moon soil from the lunar polar regions.For Russia, the delivery of moon soil back to Earth may provide an impetus to a more serious program. The evidence of large polar ice masses on the moon will make potential deployment of a lunar base much easier. Another argument in favor of a moon base is its role as a springboard for exploring Mars. The lower force of gravity on the moon makes it easier to launch a heavy spacecraft capable of delivering a relatively large crew of six to seven cosmonauts to Mars, along with the required equipment. A lunar base would allow a “space shipyard” to be set up for assembling a vehicle bound for Mars on the moon from components delivered from Earth. The Mars mission may also return to the moon, to ultimately get back to Earth in a ship travelling from the moon base.The lunar base could perform one more function. The moon soil contains large amounts of the isotope helium-3. Helium/deuterium nuclear fusion is regarded as a potential substitute for deuterium/tritium fusion, which is well known to people for its application in thermonuclear processes. Helium-3 is, therefore, an isotope that holds much promise for the thermonuclear power industry of the future.Once power engineers achieve a thermonuclear reaction breakthrough, the moon will become a valuable asset, and its exploration a practical business task rather than an abstract scientific challenge, and will have to be addressed by the biggest energy corporations.But Roskosmos plans for a manned moon mission are suspended for the moment, however, because Russia at the moment has no plans for building a ship capable of traveling to the moon. So far, all hopes have been pinned in the PPTS (Prospective Piloted Transport System) and the part of it known as the PTK NP (New Generation Piloted Transport Ship).The system is being developed by RKK Energia, which has announced the trial period – 2015 for the unmanned ship and 2018 for the manned version of the vehicle. Even so, the recent track record of Russian space efforts raises doubts that Energia will be on schedule.
Etape osvajanja Meseca:-Luna-Glob 1-Luna-Glob 2 / Luna-Resurs-Luna-Grunt-Lunny Poligon (Lunnyj Poligon)
A robotic lunar base that follows Glob and Grunt would be a "Robotic proving ground", consist of several components:
  • solar power station,
  • telecommunication station
  • technological station
  • scientific station
  • long-range research rover
  • landing and launch area
  • orbiting satellite

This project is planned for 2020, with an expected completion date of 2037.

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bigvlada

Ovo nisu konkretni projekti već teorijski prikaz stanice u orbiti Meseca, broda za prevoz astronauta, mesečevog lendera i dela mesečeve baze koji služi za dobijanje vode i kiseonika. Ovo je naravno studija od pre skoro pola veka, tada nisu znali da gore ima leda u kraterima što proces čini mnogo jednostavnijim.eamasn.jpgwv901z.jpg264nech.jpg

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bigvlada
r2miap.jpgUporedni prikaz mesečevih raketa: Saturn V, N-1 i UR-700 iz OKB-52 Vladimira Čelomeja. Ova poslednja je i najintrigantnija, jer je imala najfleksibilniji dizajn. UR (Univerzalna Raketa) porodica raketa nosača je trebala da pokrije sve lansirne potrebe (zvanično ime Protona je UR-500) sve do gigantskog UR-700M sa 750 tona nosivosti koji je iz dva lansiranja trebao da postavi u orbitu brod za let na Mars. Koncept tada nije zaživeo jer Proton i veći papirni rođaci troše izuzetno toksična hipergolična goriva (Rusija plaća Kazahstanu dekontaminaicju zemljišta posle svakog lansiranja) a jedna eksplozija Protona uz gubitak više ljudskih života je sahranila UR-700. Nova familija Angara raketa je građena po istom principu ali uz korišćenje netoksičnih goriva2dbmlox.jpgUpredni prikaz mesečevih lendera: Apolo, LOK i LK-700. Sovjetske letelice su mogle da nose dva člana posade a američka tri.

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Skyhighatrist

Ko ima milijardu i četrsto meleona u shteku, može da počne da vežba moonwalk:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6hoSSmW27xs

Change is on the lunar horizon—led by the private sector.The Golden Spike Company is planning to transform human space exploration by putting in place affordably priced ($1.4 b) lunar orbital and surface expeditions to the only natural satellite of the Earth – the Moon. Golden Spike will further transform human lunar exploration by making these missions participatory expeditions that involve the general public in ways that create exciting new ways to monetize human space exploration.Board MembersMr. Gerry Griffin - Chairman of the Board, Apollo Flight Director, former Director of NASA Johnson Space Center, and former head of the Greater Houston Chamber of CommerceDr. Alan Stern - President and CEO, planetary scientist, former head of all NASA science missions, “Time Magazine 100″ honoreeMs. Cindy Conrad – Treasurer, businesswoman and commercial space expert, formerly at NASA Headquarters Planetary Science Division and Exploration Systems Mission DirectorateMs. Esther Dyson - NewSpace investor and venture capitalistMr. James R. French - propulsion and space systems expertMr. Doug Griffith - Board Secretary, aerospace attorney, safety/risk management expert, former U.S. Marine Corps aviator and Gulf War veteranMr. David Lackner - spacecraft systems engineer, former venture capitalistMr. Michel Loucks - expert in orbital mechanics and mission designMr. Taber MacCallum - life support system expert and space executiveMr. Max Vozoff - business development expert and former program manager of SpaceX’s Dragon spacecraft developmentMount A Lunar Expedition With Us... It’s The 21st Century.

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porucnik vasic
pa ko će ako neće oni? huh.gif
Кинези.

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