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Kolonizacija Marsa

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bigvlada

Pošto se dobar deo rasprave odnosio na ovu oblast, ovde mogu da idu rasprave vezane za kolonizaciju Marsa Ovo je dobra literatura, čisto da se vidi kako sada ljudi pristupaju tom problemu, naoružani sa šest decenija iskustva. Entering space - Creating a spacefaring civilizationThe case for marsLiving of the land in space - Green roads to the cosmos 1850a.jpgAn illustration of a Dragon capsule with an inflatable hab module, attached by a tether to its upper stage, leaving Earth for Mars under Zubrin’s proposal. (credit: The Mars Society)A transorbital railroad to Marsby Jeff FoustMonday, May 23, 2011 One of the biggest challenges for the effective exploration and exploitation of space has been the high cost of space access. Over the last several decades governments and companies alike have made numerous attempts to lower the cost of reaching orbit, from the Space Shuttle program to various proposed commercial launchers, with little success. Zubrin’s concept is, at its core, a space access subsidy program.At the same time, efforts to move ahead with human exploration of Mars—widely regarded as the long-term goal for human spaceflight—have been stymied in part by the perceived need to develop a heavy-lift launch vehicle similar in capacity to the Saturn V to carry out such missions. The high cost and long development time of such a vehicle, along with the need to develop various other components such as landers and habitat modules, have deferred those plans for decades. Now, though, one leading space advocate believes he has a solution to both problems that could enable low-cost space access and near-term human missions to Mars.Building the transorbital railroadIn a presentation Sunday at the International Space Development Conference (ISDC) in Huntsville, Alabama, Mars Society president Robert Zubrin unveiled a concept he calls the “Transorbital Railroad” to provide low-cost and regular access to space. The name, he explained in an interview at ISDC the day before his presentation, is intended to draw a parallel with the development of the transcontinental railroad in the United States in the 1860s. “How do we create something to open the way to space in as profound a way as the transcontinental railroad?”Zubrin’s concept is, at its core, a space access subsidy program. Rather than spend billions on new launch vehicles, he envisions NASA instead spending a modest amount of money—he suggested $1.2 billion a year, about six percent of its current $18.5-billion annual budget—buying the most “cost-effective” launch vehicles available. That cost effectiveness would be some function of its price and payload capacity; Zubrin has a particular preference for SpaceX’s proposed Falcon Heavy, which could launch up to 53 metric tons into low Earth orbit (LEO) for as little as $80 million a launch.NASA would then, in turn, resell that launch capacity to itself, other government agencies, and the private sector, at the artificially low price of $50 per kilogram, or about $2.65 million per fully-loaded Falcon Heavy. Those launches, he said, would take place on a regular schedule, regardless if the capacity on each vehicle is fully subscribed. “You don’t hold the train in the station until it fills up,” he explained. Any excess capacity would be filled with consumables like water, oxygen, and propellant, which could be stored on orbit for use by any interested parties.“All kinds of space ventures become possible,” Zubrin said. “They may succeed or they may fail, but launch cost is not going to be the problem.”In Zubrin’s example of the Falcon Heavy, his proposed $1.2-billion annual budget would allow the launch of 15 vehicles, with a total capacity of 795 metric tons. The cost to customers for that capacity would be just under $40 million, or somewhat less than the going price of a single Falcon 9 that can place a little over 10 metric tons into LEO. Those low “user fees” for accessing his transorbital railroad pay only a tiny fraction of the real launch costs, he acknowledged. However, he believes that those launch costs will enable a whole new range of commercial space applications that would otherwise not be possible at current launch prices. “All kinds of space ventures become possible,” he said. “They may succeed or they may fail, but launch cost is not going to be the problem.”The cost to the federal government for the program could be offset by an increase to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of $7.2 billion a year, assuming a ratio of $1 in increased tax revenue per $6 increase in GDP. “It’s very reasonable to argue that the tax revenues would pay for the railroad program many times over,” he said. The required GDP increase “is a very modest estimate given the kinds of things you would be unleashing here.”Riding the railroad to MarsOne potential use of the “transorbital railroad”, of course, would be a human mission to Mars. While not strictly dependent on that concept, Zubrin has developed a new variation of the Mars Direct concept he first proposed in the early 1990s that could allow for a relatively near-term, albeit economy-class, human expedition to Mars.Zubrin’s “Mars Semi-Direct” concept would make use of three Falcon Heavy launches every two years. In the first phase, the three Falcon Heavy rockets would launch to Mars an unmanned hab module and ascent vehicle, which would land on the Martian surface, and an Earth return vehicle (ERV) that would go into Martian orbit; all three would be based on SpaceX’s Dragon spacecraft. Two years later, three more Falcon Heavy rockets would carry another ERV and ascent vehicle as well as a crewed Dragon that would land on the surface. At the end of their stay on the surface, the astronauts would fly one of the ascent vehicles to orbit, where they would rendezvous with one of the ERVs for the trip home.While this approach does include the complication of Mars orbit rendezvous for the trip home when compared to the original Mars Direct concept (where the ascent vehicle launched directly to Earth) this Semi-Direct approach does have some advantages beyond its use of the low-cost Falcon Heavy. Among the biggest advantage is that it does away with the development of a 100-kilowatt nuclear reactor needed in Mars Direct. Zubrin estimates that the power needs could be met by Soviet-era 10-kilowatt Topaz nuclear reactors or even solar power, “which is just barely possible with ten kilowatts,” he said.The Zubrin proposal includes the use of an inflatable hab module to provide extra living space for the two-person crew.Zubrin has done basic calculations of the logistics required to show that it is possible to send two people to Mars with enough supplies for up to three years. Those calculations, though, do require recycling of oxygen and water. The mission also makes use of in situ resource utilization (ISRU) to produce propellant for the return mission. Unlike the original Mars Direct concept, which carried liquid hydrogen to Mars to produce methane and oxygen, this proposal brings the methane to Mars and produces liquid oxygen by extracting it from carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere.Zubrin first publically discussed this proposal in an op-ed in the May 14th issue of the Wall Street Journal. One of the criticisms in online discussions of that proposal is that it appears to require the two-person crew to spend the six-month transits between Earth and Mars in the cramped volume of a Dragon capsule. That struck many as uncomfortable at very least, if not unsafe.One aspect missing from the Journal piece, though, is the use of an inflatable hab module. Zubrin said the module, eight meters long and six meters in diameter, would inflate from the nose of the Dragon capsule. It would provide 56.5 square meters of floor space and 180 cubic meters of overall volume, pressurized at a third of an atmosphere. That makes its volume comparable to Bigelow Aerospace’s proposed Sundancer volume, although Zubrin said the module would not have the solar panels, attitude control systems, or other components needed for a free-flying module. “This is why it’s not a question of two people being crammed in the ten cubic meters of the Dragon,” he said.That hab module, featuring a Kevlar skin, weighs only 200 kilograms, but Zubrin said it has ten times the strength needed to maintain its integrity. The hab and Dragon would fly to Mars attached to its upper stage by a tether, spinning to provide Mars gravity. Once at Mars the crew would sever the tether and either deflate and store the hab module prior to reentry or simply detach the module. Once on the surface, the crew would re-inflate the hab or deploy a new one to provide the same living space during their stay on Mars.Because this architecture would make use of components that either already exist or are under development (such as the crewed version of the Dragon spacecraft and the Falcon Heavy launcher), and would not require the expense and time involved with developing a new space-rated nuclear reactor, such a mission could be flown relatively soon. In his Journal op-ed Zubrin suggested that “we could have our first team of human explorers on the Red Planet by 2016.” However, that may be overly optimistic given that the crewed Dragon and Falcon Heavy are still in their early phases of development and other technologies, including oxygen and water recycling, would need to be demonstrated in space.Enabling every visionZubrin’s two ideas—the “transorbital railroad” and the Falcon Heavy Mars mission architecture—are technically independent from one another. The transorbital railroad could serve multiple customers; Zubrin notes that the Mars missions, which require three Falcon Heavy launches every two years, would account for only ten percent of the system’s capacity. And even without the railroad, that Mars mission architecture could be flown relatively affordably simply by buying Falcon Heavy vehicles at SpaceX’s listed price.“I think this idea is something the entire space community can rally behind, because it enables every vision,” Zubrin said.Combined, though, Zubrin believes offer some interesting possibilities for Mars exploration. “If NASA didn’t want to do it, certain private organizations could say, ‘We want to do a Mars mission, so we’ll buy three launches of this railroad,’” Zubrin said. For perhaps two to three times to cost of mounting an entry in the America’s Cup yachting race, he estimated, some organization could decide to mount their own human Mars mission.Zubrin admitted that there are a number of details that have to be worked out for both concepts. The transorbital railroad, for example, requires some work on the logistics of integrating multiple payloads and also accommodating the items that would fill the excess capacity on each launch. The specifics of contracting the launches, including whether to include a second launch provider instead of being reliant on a single vehicle, also require some work, he said.Zubrin believes, though, that several factors mean that the time has come for both ideas. SpaceX’s announcement of the Falcon Heavy opens the door to mission applications that could take advantage of relatively low cost heavy lift. Concepts like the transorbital railroad has been proposed in the past, he noted, but with the impending retirement of the shuttle, potential institutional opposition to them may be fading. And the upcoming presidential election cycle could provide an opportunity for a candidate to make a statement about human space exploration that takes advantage of this proposal.“I think this idea is technically possible, enormously beneficial, and politically possible,” he said of the transorbital railroad. “I think this idea is something the entire space community can rally behind, because it enables every vision.”http://www.thespacereview.com/article/1850/1Ovo je tema koja je dosta česta u SF romanima, sistem konvoja koji donekle podseća na rani šesnaesti vek, kada su flote jednom godišnje išle do amerike i nazad.

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bigvlada

Liquid water on Mars might taste salty DR EMILY BALDWIN ASTRONOMY NOWPosted: 04 August 2011 Fingers of dark material running down steep slopes in the warmest regions of Mars could be the result of salty water flows, say scientists interpreting repeat observations snapped by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's (MRO) powerful HiRISE camera. mro1.jpg An image combining orbital imagery with 3-D modeling shows flows that appear in spring and summer on a slope inside Mars' Newton crater. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona. The dark stripes, which are on the order of a few metres wide and several hundred metres long, were identified on several steep equator-facing slopes in the middle latitudes of the red planet's southern hemisphere. The features are different to the much wider gullies already seen on many cold, pole-facing slopes, and appear to fade during the winter months, reappearing in springtime. In some locations more than 1,000 individual flows have been identified, some of which had grown by more than 200 metres in just two Earth months. “But the sites themselves are rare,” says Alfred McEwen of the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, principal investigator of HiRISE and lead author of a paper reporting the results in the latest edition of the journal Science. “We have seven individual sites confirmed, with 20 candidates waiting to be confirmed in repeat imaging.” In one location, the pattern is repeated over three martian summers. “A volatile material is likely involved in the activity,” says McEwen. The scientists suspect the flows might be briny, which is consistent with the detection of salt deposits in many locations over Mars’ surface. Salt lowers the freezing temperature of water, so although the temperatures observed would not melt pure water ice, the salt content of this fluid – saltier than Earth's oceans – is enough to keep the water liquid. Yet MRO's Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has, to date, not found any indication of water at these sites. "It's a mystery now, but I think it's a solvable mystery with further observations and laboratory experiments," says McEwen. “It’s the first time we’ve seen the potential for water; it might be salty, but it’s liquid.” mro2.jpg This image shows warm-season flows on a north-facing slope in middle southern latitudes of Mars. Repeat imaging by HiRISE shows the features appear and incrementally grow during warm seasons and fade in cold seasons. Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona. On Earth, where there’s water, there’s life, and NASA’s mantra of “follow the water” to find life has stepped up a gear with this discovery. Evidence for ancient rivers and lakes exist all over Mars, and sites which potentially host liquid brines will help in the quest to determine whether life exists, or once existed, on the planet. Frozen water is widespread, and ice has been detected in freshly formed shallow impact craters and seen in trenches dug by the Phoenix Mars Lander near the planet's north pole, for example. Furthermore, beads of droplets seen on Phoenix's landing struts were argued to be globules of brine-rich liquid. Landslides seen in gullies are also thought to have been facilitated by flowing water. “The mid-latitudes are turning out to be the place on Mars where a lot of the action is,” says Philip Christensen, a geophysicist at Arizona State University. “The new discovery provides evidence that water is closer to the equator than previously thought, which has the potential to be liquid at various times throughout the year. We’re now at the beginning of a scientific process to probe the details.” Until that crucial direct detection is made, this is surely the best evidence yet of liquid water flowing on Mars.Ovo (ako se pokaže kao istina) će olakšati gradnju baza koje se ne nalaze u blizini severne ledene kape i umanjiti potrebu za železnicomkoja bi dopremala led do umerenog pojasa.

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MarlaSinger
On Earth, where there’s water, there’s life, and NASA’s mantra of “follow the water” to find life has stepped up a gear with this discovery.
To je misljenje vladalo do pre par godina , kada su brojna istrazivanja ukazala da je zivot moguc i u neki drugim exstremnim uslovima i u tecnostima koje nisu voda. Skoro sam gledala dokumentarac na Space kanalu gde su govorili o verovatnoci postojanja zivota na Titanu i Europi . A sta je sa Mesecom? Zar nije logicnije napraviti baze/klonije na nemu pa onda ici dalje ? Meni su ideje o istrazivanju i putovanju kroz svemir bile drage i uzbudljive od kad znam za sebe. Mozda zato obozavam transformerse :wub::lol:.

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MarlaSinger

malo o Titanuhttp://www.titanexploration.com/lifetitan.htm

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Weenie Pooh
To je misljenje vladalo do pre par godina , kada su brojna istrazivanja ukazala da je zivot moguc i u neki drugim exstremnim uslovima i u tecnostima koje nisu voda. Skoro sam gledala dokumentarac na Space kanalu gde su govorili o verovatnoci postojanja zivota na Titanu i Europi .
Ovvvaj... Titan se koliko ja znam sastoji od (zaleđene) vode. To što mu je atmosfera otrovna po ljude nema mnogo veze.Za Europu se nagađa da čak ima i tečnu vodu duboko ispod površine.

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MarlaSinger
Ovvvaj... Titan se koliko ja znam sastoji od (zaleđene) vode. To što mu je atmosfera otrovna po ljude nema mnogo veze.Za Europu se nagađa da čak ima i tečnu vodu duboko ispod površine.
Mmmm pricam o mogucosti postojanja zivotnih formi van pretpostavke da se zivot moze razviti iskljucivo u vodi tecnog oblika, nisam mislila na kolonizaciju Titana i Europe kada sam ostavila komentar.

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Weenie Pooh

Pa to, kakve veze imaju Titan i Europa sa tim životom bez vode? Plus što je Titan prepun svakakvih ugljovodonika, valjda je najmanje pogodno poznato mesto za razvoj nekakvih alternativnih vidova života, pošto je relativno sličan Zemlji.Plus što spamujemo čoveku temu o Marsu. Ne znam kako stoji stvar sa interesovanjem trenutno, ali ako do sada nisu napravljeni nikakvi konkretni koraci u tom pravcu, sumnjam da će iko od nas doživeti i početak nekakvog procesa kolonizacije. Svet mi nimalo ne deluje kao da ide u pravcu klarkovski stabilnih world-govt ekonomija koje sipaju milijarde u istraživanje svemira...

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bigvlada

Elem, kako bi izgledala misija više puta pominjanog Oriona, sa klasičnim lansiranjem u orbitu, pomoću hemijskih raketa. Ono što treperi kasnije su eksplozije nuklearnih bombi koje guraju brod, u ovom slučaju ka Marsu. On nikada više ne bi sleteo na planetu, služio bi kao autobus između zemlje i marsa.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-5IviadEChM&feature=related

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bigvlada

Zima na Marsuzimanamarsu.jpgI po jedna panorama od Duha i Prilikemarsroveripanorama.jpg

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Weenie Pooh
Elem, kako bi izgledala misija više puta pominjanog Oriona, sa klasičnim lansiranjem u orbitu, pomoću hemijskih raketa. Ono što treperi kasnije su eksplozije nuklearnih bombi koje guraju brod, u ovom slučaju ka Marsu. On nikada više ne bi sleteo na planetu, služio bi kao autobus između zemlje i marsa.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-5IviadEChM&feature=related
Pa zar nisu ti projekti odavno napušteni kao mepraktični? Evo sad gledam, izgleda da jesu... Sećam se nekog prastarog članka u Politikinom Zabavniku o tim nuklearnim raketama, znam da mi je krajnje blesavo izgledalo ovo sa tim klipovima i tom pokretnom pločom koja treba da smanji ubrzanje do neke granice podnošljive za ljudsku posadu. Laički gledano, naravno.Sasvim intuitivno, kladio bih se da ćemo pre videti neki fancy SF AM-catalyzed pogon... nego te ŽilVernovske 20 kilometara duge rakete koje jašu na lancu eksternih nuklearnih ekplozija.Nego, na temu Marsa, je li tačno da su te fotografije svesno "zacrvenjene" zato što ljudi očekuju da Mars bude više crvenkast nego što stvarno jeste? :unsure:010604-1.jpg010604-2.jpg

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gone fishing

može biti, vozači duha i prilike imaju ispred sebe na monitorima crno-belu sliku- verovatno crno-bele slike imaju manju veličinu u KB, te su praktičnije za wireless prenos do zemlje a onda ih ovde oboje u Photoshop-u po slobodnom umetničkom nadahnuću

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bigvlada

Da, jasno se na slikama navodi da li imaju false color ili ne. Ranije su morali da mnogo više vode računa o količini podataka, ali to danas nije slučaj.Oba robota imaju kamere u boji. Uostalom, sve što se šalje su nule i jedinice.mariner4.jpgKada je Mariner 4 počeo da šalje prve slike Marsa, inženjeri u Jet Propulsion Laboratory nisu mogli da sačekaju da se skinu sve slike, već čim bi primili jedan set nula i jedinica, prevodili su zapis a zatim su markerom u boji dodavali na zidu parče po parče informacija koje su stizale. To je bila prva letelica koja je poslala slike površine marsa.

Edited by bigvlada

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bigvlada
5lo4qt.jpgKako je tehnika napredovala tokom godina: crnobela kamera vikinga 1, kolor kamera vikinga 2, pathfinder i sojourner.

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bigvlada

Par novih sličica sa Prilike, pesak je tu, dine su tu,grebeni su tu, fali samo more :lol:01.jpg03.jpg05a.jpgostale ovde:http://spaceflightnow.com/news/n1108/24opportunity/

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bigvlada

Kada bi sve gradove, velegrade, metropolise,gradiće i palanke poređali jedne oko drugih (dakle sve sem klasičnih sela) dobili bi grad veličine države Alžir, sa oko 3,3 milijarde ljudi. To uključuje sve parkove, delove rečnih korita itd...11hqr8i.jpgPitanje je koliko još naša planeta može da primi ljudi. Nije da imamo obradive zemlje na bacanje.2w57h8g.jpgElem, da bacimo opet pogled na najbliži komšiluk.Interesantno je da iako je oko 38 letelica poslato na Mars od 1960, manje od 50% ih je bilo uspešno. Današnji uslovi su takvi da je pritisak suviše nizak a temperatura suviše niska da bi voda mogla da postoji u tečnom stanju u dužem vremenskom periodu. Otkriće hematita i drugih minerala koji se mogu formirati samo pod vodom govori da je tečna voda nekada postojala na Marsu. Ovo što se sada dešava u vidu pojedinačnih izliva se može objasniti tektonskom aktivnošću koja sa svoje strane utiče na nastanak veoma kratkotrajne atmosfere sastavljene od gasova koji daju efekat staklene bašte a rezultat su kratkotrajne bujice koje se jako brzo pretvaraju u led. Ovo ne isključuje mogućnost da ispod površine ne postoji voda u tečnom stanju. Ovo je moguće sa jedne strane jer pritisak koji vrše stene koje čine koru na molekule vode veći od onog na površini a sa druge jer je unutra toplije usled laganog raspada dugoživećih radioaktivnih izotopa u jezgru. U zavisnosti od sastava stena koje čine koru, procene o dubini na kojoj je voda u tečnom stanju daju raspon od nekoliko stotina metara pa do između 3 i 7 kilometara. Za geologe i radnike sa naftnih bušotina će itekako biti posla.Ovako izgleda gejzir vode i prašine u proleće34evu6x.jpgA ovo je novi led koji je uočen5lsxmf.jpgČak i u neverovatnom slučaju da ne postoji nijedan gram vode van polarnih kapa, topljenjem leda i oslobađanjem vode koja se nalazi u južnoj polarnoj kapi bi se stvorio globalni okean dubine 11 metara. Voda neće biti problem prilikom teraformiranja. Pokojni Karl Sagan je 1971 izneo teoriju o atmosferi marsa proučavajući njegovu ekscentričnu orbitu oko sunca. U trenutku kada je Mars najbliži Suncu, na njegovoj polarnij kapi vlada zima. Međutim, kroz 25.400 godina će na severnom polu biti leto što bi po njemu dovelo do potpunog topljenja severne ledene kape (uglavnom CO2) i obrazovanja atmosfere koja bi mogla da izdržava vodu u tečnom stanju.Sagan je takođe postavio pretpostavku da će ljudi uspeti da ovo ostvare u kraćem vremenskom roku od prirode.Godinu dana kasnije, njegova dvojica kolega sa Kornela, Džozef Berns i Martin Harvit su objavili rad koji pokazuje da se ista stvar (promena ekscentriciteta orbite) može postići promenom orbite Fobosa ili obrazovanjem prstena kakav ima Saturn dodavanjem materijala iz asteroidnog pojasa. Posle još godinu dana, Karl Sagan je objavio rad Planetarn inženjering na Marsu gde opisuje tri metoda koja se mogu koristiti u teraformiranju Marsa.Vikinzi su pokazali da njegov model ima ozbiljnih rupa(mislio je da postoje ledena doba i periodi toplije klime).Elem, da vidimo šta nam je potrebno u bliskoj budućnosti:- atmosferski pritisak mora biti povećan za faktor 100- površinska temperatura mora biti veća za bar 60 kelvinaDugoročno gledano, postoje još tri uslova:- obrazovanje rezervoara tečne vode na površini (jezera i mora)- menjanje hemije marsovske atmosfere- smanjenje količine UV zraka koji stižu do površineBroj opcija kojima se ovo može postići je zamašan a neke su veoma egzotične:1.Promena ekscentriciteta marsove orbite2.Promena ukošenosti marsove ose rotacije3.Promena marsovog ciklusa precesije (promena smera ose rotacije)4.Bacanje tamnih čestica prašine koje upijaju toplotu na severni ledeni pol marsa5.Oslobađanje CO2 zarobljenog u marsovom regolitu (površinskom sloju prašine koji prekriva koru)6.Dodavanje hlorofluorokarbonata i sličnih gasova u atmosferu7.Dodavanje tamnih čestica prašine koje upijaju toplotu u atmosferu kako bi nastali oblaci8.Oslobađanje karbonata zarobljenih u kori marsa9.Zagrevanje polarnih kapa pomoću sistema ogledala10.Preusmeravanje kometa u atmosferu marsa11.Isušivanje kore marsa, tj vađenje većeg dela tečne vode koja se nalazi ispod površine12.Zasejavanje atmosfere mikrobima koji bi doveli do promene njenog sastava13.Sejanje genetski modifikovanih biljaka koje bi promenile albedo planete (odnos odbijenog i upijenog elektromagnetnog zračenja).Označava se u procentima, sneg ima 90%,zemlja u proseku oko 37-39%, mesecima 12%. Ovako to izgleda na zemlji, kada se vide samo dani bez oblaka i kada se uzima svih 365 dana oisnb5.png1. Smanjenjem perihela i držanjem ahela na istoj vrednosti će se smanjiti vreme između dva maksimalna zagrevanja sverne polarne kap što će dovesti do vlažnije i gušće atmosfere. Ahel mora ostati isti inače rizikujemo pojačan uticaj na ateroidni pojas i veću verovatnoću da nešto odatle tresne na mars.2.Ako se osa rotacije pomeri za 65 stepeni (nešto slično Uranu), obe polarne kape će primati istu količinu toplote sa sunca što će dovesti do njihovog topljenja, pojave co2 atmosfere i tečne vode. Ako se nagbib pomeri za još 6 stepeni (na 31), obekape će potpuno nestati.Prva tri metoda se mogu postići bliskim susretima Marsa sa npr. nekim od KBO-ova (Kuiper Belt Object) onoliko puta koliko je potrebno da se orbita ili osa izmene. Pošto se orbita Fobosa smanjuje (udariće u Mars u sledećih 100 miliona godina) svakako ćemo morati da mu menjamo orbitu kako bibila stabilna. Varijanta dva je da iz njega izvadimo sve što vredi od resursa i onda ga izbacimo iz orbite marsa. podvarijanta je da nakon što ga očerupamo, namerno ga srušimo na mars što će pomoći metodima teraformiranja 4,8 i 11. Opcije 4, 7 i 13 se trude da smanje albedo marsa. Niža vednost zagreva površinu i koru. Opcija 4 je bila Saganova omiljena jer je podrazumevala bacanje sloja čestica bogatih ugljenikom debljine jedan milimetar na oko šest procenata površine ledene kape. Ovo se svodi na mlevenje i posipanje ateroida prečnika 300 metara. Smanjenje albeda za 5%, sa sadašnjih 77% na oko 73% bi bilo dovoljno da otpočne stvaranje atmosfere i tečne vode. Opcije 5,8,9 i 11 se svode na metode da se veća količina co2 i vodene pari nađe u atmosferi dok opcije 6,10 i 12 žele da poećaju efekat staklene bašte u atmosferi. Trenutni pritisak koji pravi CO2 u atmosferi je 6 mikrobara (600 Pa) i povećava temperaturu za 4 stepena celzijusa.Atomosferski pritisak od 10,100 i 200 milibara dodaje 3,33 odnosno 51 stepen celzijusa površinskoj temperaturi. Kada pritisak pređe 800 milibara,možemo da pričamo o tečnoj vodi. Problem je što bi veći deo C02 u kori dodao 400 milibara, plus 100 milibara od polarnih kapa. Ugrubo, temperatura na površini bi bila 268 kelvina ili -5 stepeni celzijusa. Fali nam još malo do nule.2f0dret.jpgŠtos je u narušavanju ravnoteže od 147 kelvina i 600Pa koja je sada prisutna, tj. kako bi se oslobađao co2 planeta bi se zagrevala i vice versa. Samo dodavanje CO2 nije dovoljno, jer bi samo imali još suvog leda na polovima, potreban je i dodatni izvor toplote kako bi sadašnje stabilno stanje A pretvorili u nestabilnu tačku bez povratka B. Ova dodatna toplota bi mogla da se obezbedi opcijama 4,5 ili 9. 2yv9jyd.jpgUkratko, treba nam Arhimedova poluga :)Što se tiče varijanti sa amonijakom iz kometa ili CFC gasovima, količine koje su potrebne su monstruozne. U slučaju cfc-a, on će uništavati budući ozonski omotač.Međutim, jedan drugi gas, Oktafluoropropan, C3F8 je dobar kandidat. Pošto nema hlora i broma u sebi, neće putem katalitičkih procesa uništavati ozon a i mnogo duže traje od običnih cfc-ova. Pritisak od jednog mikrobara ovog gasa podiže temperaturu za 12 stepeni, dok pritisak od 10 mikrobara (malo manje od duplo gušće sadašnje atmosfere) obezbeđuje temperaturu od 279 kelvina (k'o ova hladnoća od pre neki dan). Hajdemo sada na varijantu sa solarnim jedrima.Aerokosmički inženjer Robert Forvard je izračunao da se jedra ne moraju postavljasti samo u geostacionarne ekvatorijalne orbite kakve koriste telekomunikacioni sateliti zemlje. Moguće je izračunati orbitu gde će satelit balansirati između gravitacionog uticaja specifične planete i sile nastale usled interakcije sa sunčevim radijacionim poljem. Svako solarno jedro bi zauzimalo fiksnu poziciju u odnosu na matičnu planetu sa orbitama koje bi bile i "ispod"i"iznad" ekvatora.On je takvo jedro sa fiksnim položajem u odnosu na planetu krstio imenom statit.Kasnije je izračunato da bi jedan takav statit prečnika od 250 kilometara na udaljenosti od 214000 kilometara od centra planete na strani suprotnoj od sunca ugrejao Mars za onih nedostajućih pet stepeni dok bi jedro prečnika 350 kilometara ugrejalo mars za 10 stepeni. Ako bi se jedra izrađivala od materijala gustine 5000kg/m3 i debljine od jednog mikrona, bila bi teška između 250.000 i 500.000 tona. Mnogo za današnju tehnologiju i rakete nosače. Ali bar znamo brojke koje su potrebne za teraformiranje.

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